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Asafetida vs. Amantidine vs. Tamiflu vs. 'Scamiflu' vs. H1N1
It's true. I have focused on Food Farmacy for a couple of years, not just now when health plans and organic gardens are being discussed on Pennsylvania Avenue. Food Farmacy might be the answer to a cheaper, healthier American. I have long claimed that spices are among the most potent of medicinal foods. I even hinted that garlic might be better than Tamiflu for the flus runing rampant around here in 2009. No one knows for sure until they have been clinically compared. In my present status of ignorance, I'd surely take garlic if I had swine flu. Garlic is the most frequent medicinal plant in my Green Farmacy Garden (GFG). But at age 80, I might also take the Tamiflu if I happened to have some on hand, suggesting that the natural and the synthetic might (as so often happens) be synergic. I have not and probably will not take any flu vaccinations this season.
Back during the summer, we workers in the GFG were having vegetable soup with garlic and garlic toast when I decided to show the garden director a garlic necklace braided for me back during the anthrax scare. This brought back memories for one of the garden volunteers, whose South Carolina ancestors had worn another herbal necklace back around the Spanish flu epidemic of 1918. They wore the spice called asafetida, Ferula assa-fetida, in a necklace in the belief that it prevented respiratory disorders. Curiosity piqued, I started looking into this and found the following quote in my good friend Art Tucker's The Big Book of Herbs: "Pennsylvania German schoolchildren once wore this as an amulet around the neck to ward off colds."1
Perhaps you can imagine my childish enthusiasm upon reading shortly later that the asafetida contained nine antiviral compounds. Yes, Taiwanese scientists published an exciting paper, suggesting that the spice Ferula assa-fetida, known colloquially simply as asafetida, contains at least nine phytochemicals more potent (IC50 0.26–0.86 ug/ml) against the influenza A virus (H1N1) than amantadine.2 Almost all flu is already resistant to the single silver bullet amantadine, but probably none are resistant to the mix of nine natural antivirals in asafetida. I get all excited when science vindicates the folk medicinal lore. So this was super-exciting. I'll wager that the asafetida studied by the Taiwanese is much better than amantadine for H1N1, more potent even than the Tamiflu, which is hard to find and is being price-gauged by pharmacies as I draft this rant.3 A container of asafetida can be purchased at ethnic shops for $2 or $3; the Tamiflu prescription often tops $100.
By the time the FDA arrived for a tour of the GFG (Oct. 8, 2009), I had a container of asafetida, which Asian Indians sometimes call hing. As mentioned, I had many garlic plants in the GFG, in more than 25% of the 80 plots for several different indications. But my garden, like I fear all American gardens, contains no living asafetida. Dr. Tucker tells me on good authority that there is no living asafetida in the US. It comes from Afghanistan and similar areas in the Middle and Far East. If it proves as promising as my enthusiasm lets me venture, it might make a better alternative crop for the opium poppy than the saffron. If Afghans are as corrupt as they claimed on CNN TV (Nov. 18, 2009), there could be a black market developed for viable seed of the asafetida, and the plant will soon show up in medicinal plant gardens around the world. That might gradually contribute to stockpiles of asafetida, which I'll venture would be truly more worthwhile than the hoarded stockpiles of Tamiflu.
On Oct. 22, 2009, a USDA delegation came to GFG for a special tour. I was introducing them to my new Rodale book, The Green Pharmacy Guide to Healing Foods. The H1N1 virus was on everyone's mind. During my talk, I wore an amulet of asafetida around my neck, hoping that the flu would flee. We also made some film and radio clips, some of which have already aired. To the best of my knowledge, nobody got the flu. But wearing my asafetida amulet, and reeking of fresh garlic that I ingested during the tour, I noted that virus-bearing guests seemed to keep their distance. I didn't get the flu (yet). I don't know that any of the visitors did either.
Asafetida is said to be the "secret" ingredient in Worcestershire sauce. It's so secret, it's not named on the label of the Lea & Perrins bottle I have (“Ingredients: water, vinegar, molasses, high fructose corn syrup, anchovies, hydrolyzed soy and corn protein, onions, tamarinds, salt, garlic, cloves, chili peppers, natural flavorings, and shallots”). But we don't even know how much asafetida is in those "natural flavorings," the next to last ingredient in the sauce.
We don't even know how much asafetida is in that sample of Asafetida I had hanging around my neck. Now at noon Nov. 21, 2009, I am indulging in my new and modified "Scamiflu". It doesn't taste any better or worse with or without this added asafetida. Worcestershire sauce tastes better to me and smells much better than the Compounded Asafetida Powder imported from India. The label on that product quantifies only the proximate nutritional value, not quantifying the three named ingredients: “Gum Arabic; Wheat Starch, Asafoetida.”
Nutritional Value ( per 100g )
Carbohydrate 73.28 g
Fat 1.00 g
Vit. C 2.35
There's no way, short of analysis, that I can extrapolate. What quantity, if any, of the nine new antiviral compounds are in the Compounded Asafoetida Powder or in the Worcestershire sauce? I would suspect that the Taiwanese scientists could readily tell which, if any, are present and whether they or there in significant quantities. I'd really like to see an in vitro comparison of both those in vitro and in vivo with Tamiflu against H1N1.
Toast Donald Rumsfeld, who is said to benefit economically from sales of Tamiflu. Enjoy a quick flight into Food Farmacy Fantasy. Toast Rumsfeld with Scamiflu. Savor a cup of my Spiced Scamiflu Soup. Since it is intended as a food and is a good food, not a medicine, no prescription will be needed. Nor is a prescription intended. It is simply a food, an herbal broth, coincidentally with many edible antiviral constituents, It takes only a minute to cook. The ingredients are already in most kitchens. Dice one to two cloves garlic into a porcelain cup of water. Add, according to taste, 1 to 3 dashes each of Worcestershire sauce, black pepper, cayenne, and curry. Microwave 1 minute. Enjoy! When the flu is going around, you might take this instead of your morning coffee. I'd take up to four cups a day, eating the residual garlic giblets. They are still pungent, meaning that they still contain the antiviral alliin and allicin. So far no flu. Make sure your partner is indulging as well. Chase with elderberry juice.
Warning: Scamiflu is an untested food, not a medicine. Scamiflu has been proven to contain antiviral ingredients. Scamiflu has never been investigated clinically. Therefore it cannot be recommended for medicinal purposes. Until Scamiflu has been clinically compared with Tamiflu, no one knows which is better for your new flu or the new rhinovirus.5 Scientists will tell you that many viruses are now already resistant to monochemical Tamiflu. News on Nov. 20 and 21, 2009, talks about yet another strain of Tamiflu-resistant H1N1 in North Carolina. I'll wager ten doses of Tamiflu that my Scamiflu (or garlic alone) will be more efficacious against the new NC Tamiflu–resistant strain. This could be easily and rapidly verified, at least in vitro. And why not do it? All ingredients are foods, if not GRAS. I think that any intelligent unbiased scientific or government agency, apprised of the medicinal potential of Scamiflu and Tamiflu against frequently constantly mutating viruses, would demand such an unbiased clinical comparison of the food with the pharmaceutical. We certainly know that monochemical "silver bullets" rapidly lead to viral resistance, much more rapidly than polychemical shotguns like garlic and asafetida. I feel safe in assuring you that the ingredients species in my herbal Scamiflu contain dozens of proven antiviral compounds that most of our genes have known for hundreds of millennia. Our genes have known synthetic pharmaceuticals less than 200 years. I think, that with proper trials, these Food Farmacy approaches could improve our economy and our health.
James A. (Jim) Duke
8210 Murphy Road
Fulton, MD 20759
Here's a formatted entry from my searchable Father Natures Farmacy (FNF) Database, in process of finalization, to be immersed in an online database soon with 3,000 similar entries. This will be different than but interconnected to my USDA phytochemical database: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke.
Too often, my editors ask for full references. This document is intensely but cryptically referenced; there's at least one reference, most often a three-letter abbreviation for a database or book that provides the common name. Once in the proprietary database, one can search on any element. Searching the whole database one could ask for all medicinal plants among the 3,000 in the database mentioned for any country of choice that is in the database. One could even build an index of common names in Afghan, Sanskrit, Iranian, of medicinal plant. One could limit such to only those with high safety scores (++) or (+++) (SS) or only those with a high FNFF (Father Nature's Food Farmacy) score. Or one could limit the printout to a list of all plants in whatever language scoring high for any indication. Then by interfacing with the USDA database, one could inquire for the chemicals (and each of their bioactivities) as reported in the USDA phytochemical database
And one could inquire similarly from the FNF base about the scores of a given species for any or all of the activities desired. In short, one could inquire for any combination of geographic area or languages, overall safety, FNFF score, efficacy scores for indications and activities. This is a powerful database already and with amplification might skillfully select the best individual medicinal plants for individual patients one day in the near future, says the author optimistically.
It could overnight produce a medicinal flora (or a survival medicinal manual.) of Cuba, Haiti, Iran, India, or any of hundreds of areas. Or a catalog of all the anticancer, antiviral, aphrodisiac chemicals with common names in select languages. You name it.
ASAFETIDA (Ferula assa-foetida L.) SS = ++ FNFF = !!!
`Illustrated pl. 483 (top) KAB; APIACEAE
``COMMON NAMES (ASAFETIDA): Aerel (Romania; KAB); Agi (Japan; KAT; POR); Agudagandha (Sanskrit [1 of 26]; KAB); Agudagandhu (Sanskrit; POR); Angadana (Iran; KAB); A Ngaih (China; KAT); Anghuzeh (Iran; POR); Angudan (Iran; KAP); A Ngui (Vn.; KAT); A Ngu (Vn.; KAT); Angusa (Iran; DEP); Anguseh (Iran; DEP); Angustha-Gandha (Iran; EFS); Anjadan (Arab.; Yunani; KAP); Anjadana (Urdu; KAB; KAT); Anghuzeh (Iran; KAT); Angojad (Iran; KAT); Angozad (Iran; KAT); A Nguy (Annam; KAB); Angujeh (Iran; KAT); Anguzakema (Ag.; KAB); Anguzeh (Iran; KAT); Anjudan (Kashmir; DEP); Asafetida (Bul.; Cro.; Eng.; Rus.; Scn.; Ser.; Sp.; AH2; CR2; KAB; KAT; POR; `TEU); Asafétida (Sp.; KAT; POR); Asa-fétida (Fr.; KAT); Asafétide (Fr.; EFS); Asafetyda (Pol.; KAT); Asafietida (Rus.; MAD); Asafoetida (Dutch; Eng.; `Ger.; Ice.; KAT; POR; `TEU); Asa-foetida (Fr.; KAT); Asafötida (Ger.; KAT); Asaföötida (Est.; KAT); Asahetida (Japan; KAT); Asant (Ger.; KAT; MAD; `TEU); Asapoetida (Korea; KAT); Asa Smrdutá (Cze.; KAT); Ase Fétide (Fr.; KAT; MAD; `TEU); Assafetida (Port.; KAB); Assafétida (It.; Por.; KAT); Assa-foetida (Eng.; POR); `Assefétida (Fr.; JTR); A Wei (China; Pinyin; DAA; EFS; KAB; KAT; POR); Awi (Korea; KAT); Aza (Gre.; KAT); Azafetida (Lit; KAT); Badhika (Sanskrit; POR); Baharana (Guj.; ADP); Balhika (Sanskrit; WOI); Bhutnasan (Sanskrit; EFS); ertovo Lejno (Cze.; KAT; MAD); Chaltit (Heb.; KAT); Czarcie Lajno (Pol.; MAD); Devil's Dung (Eng.; CR2; `JTR; KAT; POR; `TEU); Djöflatao (Ice.; KAT); Dr veldri is (Lat.; KAT); Duivelsdrek (Dutch; KAT; POR); Duivels Drek (Dutch.; EFS; KAB); Dyvelsadraek (Nor.; KAB); Dyvelsaräk (Den.; KAB; MAD); Dyvelsdr k (Den.; KAT); Dyvelsdrek (Den.; EFS; POR); Dyvelsdrekk (Nor.; KAT); Dyvelsträck (Swe.; KAT; POR); Esterco-do-diabo (Por.; KAT); `Estiércol del Diablo (Sp.'; JTR); Ferula (Slovak; KAT); Ferula ertová (Slovak; KAT); Ferula del Sagapeno (It.; EFS); Ferule Fétide (Fr.; KAB); Férule Persique (Fr.; KAT; POR; USN); Food of the Gods (Eng.; FAC; `TEU); Giant Fennel (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2;`TEU); Godenvoedsel (Dutch; KAT); `Gum Asafetida (Eng.; JTR); Haisev vaiguputk (Est.; KAT); Hajupihka (Fin.; KAT); Haltida (Arab.; GHA); Haltit (Arab.; Heb.; GHA; KAB; KAT); Hengu (Oriya; KAT; POR; WOI); Hiltit (Arab.; KAT; POR); Hiltut (Arab.; DEP); Hin (Japan; KAT); Hing (Ben.; Bom.; Guj.; Hindi; Kan.; Mar.; Nepal; Pashto; Pun.; Urdu; ADP; DEP; EFS; KAB; KAP; KAT; POR; WOI); Hinger (Kan.; POR); Hingra (Ben.; Hindi; Pun; KAP; KAT); Hingu (Ayu.; Malaya; Sanskrit; AH2; DEP; KAP; KAT; POR; WOI); Hsün Ch'u (China; EFS); Hun'gu (Dhivehi; KAT); Inggu (Malaya; EFS); Ingu (Kan.; KAT); Tel.; ADP); Ingumo (Tel.; POR; WOI); Inguva (Tel.; KAT; POR; WOI); Jatuka (Sanskrit; ADP); Juudavaik (Est.; KAT); Kama I Anguza (Pashto; KAT); Kayam (Mal.; KAT); Khorakema (KAB); Kurnekema (AFG); Kvapioji Ferula (Lit.; KAT); Kyam (Tam.; DEP); Lo idlo (Cze; KAT); Ma Ha Hing (Laos; KAT); Mahahingath (Thai; KAT); Merde du diable (Fr.; KAT); Mvuje (Swa.; KAT); Ördöggyökér (Hun.; KAT); Peruangayam (Tam.; ADP); Perumgayam (Tam.; DEP; KAB); Perumkayam (Sinh.; Tam.; KAP); Perungayam (Mal.; Tam.; KAT; POR); Perungaayam (Tam; POR); Perunkayam (Tam.; POR); Perunkaayam (Tam.; POR); Perunkayan (Sin.; KAT; POR); Peytabntersi (Tur.; EFS); Pirunpaska (Fin.; KAT); Pirunpihka (Fin.; KAT); Raamathan (Sanskrit; KAT); Rechina fena? (Iran; KAT); wtan Bökösu (Tur.; KAT); eytan Boku (Tur.; KAT); eytantersi (Tur.; KAT); Sheingho (Burma; KAT); Shing-kun (Tibet; KAT); Singu (Burma; KAP); Sin Jun (Tibet; KAP); Skordolasaron (Greek; KAB); Smordzienic (Pol.; MAD); Smukhtiger Gevirtsling (Yid.; KAT); Steckenkraut (Ger.; KAB); Stinkasand (Den.; MAD); Stinkasant (Ger.; KAT; MAD; POR; `TEU; USN); Stinkasant Teufels Kraut (Ger.; KAP); Stinking Gum (Eng.; KAT); Teufelsdreck (Ger.; EFS; KAT; MAD; `TEU); Tyib (Arab.; EFS; POR); Ushi (India; KAB); Vaghayani (Sind.; KAB); Velna s ds (Lat.; KAT); Vonyuchka (Russia; KAB); Yang (Kashmir; WOI); Zaffetica (It.; KAB); Zapaliczka cuchn ca (Pol.; KAT);
ACTIVITIES (ASAFETIDA): Alexeritic (f; DAA); `Allelopathic (1; HOS); Allergenic (f; CRC); Analgesic (f; HOS; KAB); Anodyne (f; BOW; CRC); Anthelminthic (f; DAA; EFS; KAP; X19691312); `Antiabortive (f; MAD); `Antiacetylcholinesterase (1; X18814203); \Antiaflatoxin (1; X1394115); Antiaggregant (1; CAN; CRC; DAA; `HOS; PNC); `Antiallergic (1; HOS); `Antialzheimeran (1; FNF; X18814203); `Antiarrhythymic (1; HOS); `Anticancer (1; HOS); `Anticarcinogenic (1; `HOS); `Antidysmenorrheic (1; HOS); `Antiedemic (f; MAD); `Antiestrogenic (1; HOS); `Antiflu (1; X19691312); `Antihepatotoxic (1; HOS); `Antiherpetic (1; HOS); `Antihistaminic (1; `HOS); `AntiHIV (1; HOS; X19691312); `Antihyaluronidase (1; HOS); Antiinflammatory (f; `HOS; KAB); `Antileukemic (1; HOS); `Antimitotic (1; HOS); `Antimutagenic (1; HOS); `Antineoplastic (1; HOS); `Antinitrosaminic (1; HOS); `Antioxidant (1; HOS; X11367733; `X14531492); `Antiproliferant (1; HOS); `Antiprostaglandin (1; HOS); `Antirheumatic (f; X19691312); `Antirhinoviral (1; X18247552); Antiseptic (f1; `HOS; PHR; PH2; `TEU; X14964671; X19691312); `Antiserotonin (1; HOS); Antispasmodic (f; CAN; CRC; DEP; EFS; GHA; `JTR; `HOS; `X15120456; `X19691312); `Antistaphylococcic (1; `HOS);`Antithrombic (1; HOS); Antitumor (1; APA; `HOS; PH2; `TEU; `X19691312); `Anti-Tumor-Promoters (1; `HOS; X2110862); `Antiulcer (1; HOS); `Antiviral (1; `HOS; X18247552; `X19691312); Aperient (f; CRC); Aphrodisiac (f; APA; DEP; EFS; `HOS; KAP); `Apoptotic (1; HOS); `Arteriodilator (1; `HOS);`Bechic (f; KAB); `Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor (1; HOS); `Candidicide (1; `HOS); `Cardiotonic (1; `HOS); Carminative (f1; APA; CAN; CRC; DEP; `HOS; RIN; `TEU); Cerebrotonic (f; ADP; KAB); \Chemopreventive (1; `HOS; JAC7:405; `X14531492; X2110862); `Cholagogue (1; `HOS);`Choleretic (1; `HOS); CNS-Stimulant (f1; WOI); `Contraceptive (1; X15504384); Cytotoxic (f; DAA); Deodorant (f; DAA); `Dermatitigenic (1; HOS); Digestive (f`1; APA; DAA; `TEU); Diuretic (f; CRC; `HOS; KAB; `X19691312); Emmenagogue (f; APA; CRC; EFS; `HOS; KAB; KAP; `X19691312); Enterostimulant (f1; WOI); Expectorant (f1; APA; CAN; CRC; EFS; GHA; `HOS; RIN; `TEU); Fungicide (f`1 APA; `HOS); \Glutathiogenic (1; JAC7:405); `GST-Genic (1; `HOS; X14531492); `Hepatoprotective (1; HOS); Hepatotonic (f; KAB); `Herbicide (1; `HOS); `Hydrocholeretic (1; HOS); `Hypnotic (f; DEP); `Hypolipidemic (1; `HOS); Hypotensive (f1; CAN; CRC; `HOS; PNC; `X15120456 ); `Ileorelaxant (1; : X15120456) `Immunostimulant (1; HOS); `Insecticide (1; X15623234); `Larvicide (1; X15623234); Laxative (f; CRC; DAA; `HOS); `Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor (1; HOS); `Metal-Chelator (1; `HOS); Molluscicide (1; X16310827; X18814203); `Mosquitocide (1; X15623234); Mutagenic (1; PH2; `TEU); `Myorelaxant (1; HOS); Nervine (f; CRC; EFS; `HOS; KAP); Orexigenic (f`1; `HOS; KAB; `TEU); `Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor (1; HOS); `p450-Inducer (1; `HOS); `Pancreatonic (1; TEU); `Parasiticide (f1; X14964671); `Phagocytotic (1; `HOS); `Photoactive (1; `HOS); PTK-Inhibitor (1; `HOS); `Prostaglandagenic (1; HOS); `Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor (1; HOS); `Repellant (f; HOS); Respirostimulant (f1; KAP; WOI); `Secretogogue (f; GAZ);`Secretolytic (f; MAD); Sedative (f; EFS; GHA; `HOS; PHR; PH2); `SOD-Genic (1; X14531492); `Sterilant (1; TEU); Stimulant (f; CRC; DAA; HOS); Stomachic (f; CRC; DAA); `Sunscreen (1; HOS); `Tranquilizer (1; `HOS); \Ulcerogenic (1; JAC7:405); Uterosedative (1; HOS); Uterotonic (f; AHP); Vermifuge (f; CRC; DAA; `HOS); `Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor (1; `HOS);
INDICATIONS (ASAFETIDA): `Allergy (1; HOS); Amenorrhea (f; CRC; `HOS; `JTR; X19691312); Angina (f; `HOS; KAB); `Anorexia (f`1; KAB; TEU); `Apprehension (Schreckneurosen) (f; MAD); `Arrhythymia (1; HOS); \Arthrosis (f1; BOW; `HOS; `X19691312); Ascites (f; KAB); `Asthenia (f; MAD); Asthma (f1; APA; CRC; `HOS; MAD; WOI); `Bacteria (1; `HOS); Bite (f; `HOS; KAB); Bronchosis (f1; APA; CAN; `HOS; KAP; WOI); Callus (f; `HOS; JLH); Cancer (f1; APA; `HOS; JLH; MAD; PH2; `TEU; `X19691312 ); Cancer , abdomen (f1; APA; `HOS; JLH); `Cancer, breast (1; X14531492); Cancer, colon (f; `HOS; KAB); `Cancer, forestomach (1; `HOS); Cancer, gum (f; `HOS; JLH); Cancer, liver (f`1; `HOS; JLH); `Cancer, skin (1; `HOS); `Cancer, stomach (1; `HOS); `Candida (1; `HOS); Cardiopathy (f`1; `HOS; KAB); Caries (f; KAB; MAD); `Catarrh (f; MAD); `Childbirth (f; GHA); Cholera (f; CRC; DEP; `HOS; SKJ; WOI); `Chorea (f; MAD); Cold (f; `HOS; TAD); Colic (f; ADP; APA; CAN; CRC; DEP; `HOS; MAD); Colitis (f; APA; `HOS; PHR; PH2); Conjunctivosis (f; `HOS; KAB); Constipation (f; `HOS; PH2); Convulsion (f; ADP; BOW; CRC; `HOS; MAD); Corn (f; `HOS; JLH); Cough (f; BOW; `HOS; MAD; PNC); Cramp (f; CAN; CRC; GAZ; `JTR; `HOS; SKJ; `X19691312); Croup (f; `HOS; CRC); Deafness (f; `HOS; KAB); Dermatosis (f; `HOS; KAB); Diarrhea (f; `HOS; MAD; PH2); `Dropsy (f; MAD); \Dysentery (f; BOW; `HOS); `Dysmenorrhea (f; GHA; `HOS; MAD); Dyspepsia (f1; ADP; APA; CAN; PH2; `TEU); Dyspnea (f; `HOS; KAB); `Edema (f; MAD); Enterosis (f; APA; CRC; `HOS; MAD; PH2); Epilepsy (f; APA: CRC; `HOS; MAD; PH2; WOI); Felon (f; `HOS; JLH); `Fever (f; DEP; MAD); `Fistula (f; MAD); Flatulence (f1; APA; PNC; WOI; ); `Flu (f1; X19691312); Fracture (f; ADP; CRC; `HOS); Frigidity (f; APA; `HOS); `Fungus (1; `HOS); Gas (f1; ADP; APA; CAN; CRC; HHB; `HOS); Fungus (f; APA; HOS); Gas (f; CRC; `HOS); Gastrosis (f`1; `HOS; MAD; PHR; PH2; `TEU); Gingivosis (f; `HOS; JLH; MAD); `Guineaworm (f; DEP); Headache (f; DEP; MAD); Hemiplegia (f; CRC; `HOS); Hepatosis (f; `HOS; JLH; MAD; PH2); `Herpes (1; HOS); High Blood Pressure (f; DAA; `HOS); `HIV (1; HOS); Hyperlipidemia (f; CAN; `HOS); Hypoacidity (f; `HOS; PH2); `Hypochondria (f; KAP; MAD); Hypoglycemia (f; APA; `HOS); `Hypothermia (f; MAD); Hysteria (f; APA; CAN; `HOS; KAP; MAD; WOI); IBS (12; CAN; `HOS); `Immunodepression (1; HOS); Impotence (f; APA; `HOS); Indigestion (f1; APA; CAN; `HOS; `TEU); Induration (f; `HOS; JLH); Infection (f1; `HOS; PHR; PH2; `TEU; ` X18247552; X14964671); Inflammation (f`1; `HOS; KAB); Insanity (f; CRC; `HOS); Insomnia (f; `HOS; MAD; PHR); `Iritis (f; MAD); Jaundice (f; `HOS; KAB); Lacrymation (f; MAD); Laryngismus (f; CAN; `HOS); `Leukemia (1; HOS); Malaria (f; DEP); `Mastosis (f; MAD); `Menopause (f; MAD); Mucososis (1; APA; CAN; `HOS); Mycosis (f; `HOS; KAB); `Nervousness (f; `HOS; MAD); Neurasthenia (f; CRC; DAA; `HOS; MAD); Neuroses (f1; APA; `JTR; `HOS; KAP; MAD); \Obesity (1; CR2; FNF; `HOS); `Oliguria (f; MAD); Ophthalmia (f; `HOS; KAB; MAD); Osteosis (f; CRC; `HOS; MAD); `Ozoena (f; MAD); \Pain (f1; DEP; FNF; `HOS; MAD); Paralysis (f; `HOS; KAB); Parasite (f; `HOS; MAD; PH2); Pertussis (f; CAN; CRC; `HOS; KAP; PH2; WOI); Pneumonia (f; DEP; `HOS; KAB; KAP; SKJ); Polyp (f; CRC; `HOS); Pulmonosis (f; GAZ; MAD); Respirosis (f; GAZ; `JTR; MAD); Rheumatism (f; CRC; `HOS; KAB; `X19691312); `Rhinosis (f; MAD); Rinderpest (f; CRC; `HOS); Ringworm (f; `HOS; KAB); Sarcoma (f; CRC; `HOS); `Schistosoma (1; X15658063); `Scrofula (f; MAD); `Shigella (1; KAP); Snakebite (f; `HOS; KAB); `Sore (f; MAD); Sore Throat (f; `HOS; KAB); Spasm (f; CRC; EFS; `HOS; `X19691312); Splenosis (f; CRC; `HOS; KAB; PH2); `Staphylococcus (1; `HOS; KAP); Stomachache (f1; ADP; APA; CRC; `HOS); `Stress (1; HOS); `Swelling (f; MAD); Thrombosis (1: CAN; `HOS; PNC); `Toothache (f; DEP; MAD); Trichomonas (1; X14964671); `Tuberculosis (f; MAD); Tumor (f1; APA; `HOS; JLH); `Tympanitis (f; ADP); `Ulcer (1; HOS); `Uterosis (f; MAD); Vaginosis (1; X14964671); `Virus (1; `HOS; X18247552; X19691312);Wart (f; `HOS; JLH; MAD); Whitlow (f; `HOS; JLH); Worm (f; CRC; DEP; `HOS; `JTR); `Yeast (1; `HOS);
PHYTOCHEMICALS (FERULA ASSA-FOETIDA L.)
`ACETIC-ACID RE ADP
`8-ACETOXY-5-HYDROXYUMBELLIPRENIN RE X16872156 `X19691312
5-ACETOXY-8-HYDROXYUMBELLIPRENIN RE X19691312
10R-ACETOXY-11-HYDROXYUMBELLIPRENIN RE X19691312
(5),9 8¡¬-ACETOXY-5¡¬S-HYDROXYUMBELLIPRENIN RE X19691312
ALLYLPROPYL-SULFIDE RE 411/
L-ARABINOSE RE AYL
ASACOUMARIN-A RE `TEU AEHD1:91
ASACOUMARIN-B RE `TEU AEHD1:91
ASADISULFIDE RE AEHD1:91
12,13-ASSAFOETIDIN RE X19691312
ASARESINOTANNOL RE KAP WOI
`ASARESINOTANNOL-FERULIC-ESTERS RE `TEU
`ASSAROETIDINE [SIC] RE `TEU
AZULENE RT DAA
BASSORIN RE HHB
`BENZALDEHYDE RE X19691312
`BICYCLIC-SESQUITERPENES RE TEU
2-BUTYLMETHYL-DISULFIDE RE 411/
2-BUTYLMETHYL-TETRASULFIDE RE 411/
2-BUTYLMETHYL-TRISULFIDE RE 411/
`2-BUTYL-CIS-1-PROPENYL-DISULFIDE (11-45% EO) `TEU
2-BUTYL-trans-1-PROPENYL-DISULFIDE (11-45% EO) TAD `TEU WOI
SEC-BUTYL-PROPENYL-DISULFIDE (4,500-7,650 PPM IN RESIN) CCO
CADINENE EO 411/
CONFEROL RE X19691312
`COUMARIN RE X19691312
`MALIC-ACID RE ADP
`MEROTERPENOID RE X16872156
8,9 METHYL-GALBANATE RE X19691312
DIALLYL-SULFIDE RE 411/
`DITERPENES RE X19691312
DITERPENE RE X19691312
`DRIMANE SESQUITERPENOID RE X19691312
`DRIMANE-SESQUITERPENEDIENONES RE X16872156
EO (3-25 %RE) AYL TAD `TEU
EO 30,000 FR HH3
EO 1,000-27,000 RT HH3
`EPICONFERDIONE RE X19691312
FARNESFEROL RE 411/
FARNESFEROL-A RE AEHD1:92 `TEU
FARNESFEROL-B RE `TEU AEHD1:92 `18247552
`FARNESIFEROL C RE 18247552
10,11-FARNESIFEROL-C RE X19691312
10,12,13-FARNESIFEROL-A RE X19691312
12,13-FARNESIFEROL-B RE X19691312
FESELOL-V RE X19691312
`FETIDONE-B RE X19691312
`KELLERIN RE 18247552
`FEROCOLICIN RE `TEU
FERULIC-ACID 13,000 RE CAN HHB
FERULIC-ACID-ESTERS 600,000 RE CAN
`FETIDONE-A RE X16872156
`FETIDONE-B RE X16872156
`FOETISULFIDE-A RE X19691312
`FOETISULFIDE-C RE X19691312
FOETIDIN RT PNC TAD
GALACTOSE RE AYL
8,10,11-GALBANIC-ACID RE X19691312
GLUCOSE RE AYL
GLUCURONIC-ACID RE AYL KAP
RE 250,000 AYL
`15-HYDROXY-6-EN-DEHYDROABIETIC-ACID RE X19691312
5S-HYDROXYUMBELLIPRENIN RE X19691312
ISOBUTYLPROPANYLDISULFIDE EO LRN-Jan93
KAMOLONOL `RE X19691312
`8,10R-KARATAVICINOL RE X19691312
`KELLERIN RE 18247552
LEHMFERIN RE X19691312
`LEHMANNOLONE RE X19691312
`LIGUPERSIN-A RE X19691312
1-METHYLPROPYL-1-PROPENYL-DISULFIDE RE AEHD1:91
1-METHYLPROPYL-3-(METHYLTHIO)-2-PROPENYL-DISULFIDE RE AEHD1:91
1-(METHYLTHIO)-PROPYL-cis-1-PROPENYL-DISULFIDE (`3-38% EO) AEHD1:91 TAD `TEU
`1-(METHYLTHIO)-PROPYL-TRANS-1-PROPENYL-DISULFIDE (3% EO) `TEU
`(13),9 MICROLOBIN RE X19691312
`MICROLOBIDENE RE 18247552
MONOCYCLIC-SESQUITERPENES RE TEU
`MONOTERPENES (30% RE) `TEU
`(E)-BETA-OCIMENE RE TEU
`(Z)-BETA-OCIMENE RE TEU
`OLEIC ACID RE X19691312
`7-OXOCALLITRISIC-ACID RE X19691312
`ALPHA-PHELLANDRENE RE TEU
`BETA-PHELLANDRENE RE TEU
`PHYTOSTEROLS RE X19691312
`PICEALACTONE-C RE X19691312
ALPHA-PINENE EO AYL `TEU
BETA-PINENE EO AYL `TEU
`POLYANTHININ RE X19691312
PROPENYL-SULFIDE RE 411/
RESIN 400,000-640,000 RE TAD
RHAMNOSE RE HHB
`SALICYLATES 38 PL X16608205
`SALICYLIC-ACID 5 PL X16608205
`SESQUITERPENE COUMARINS RE X19691312
`SESQUITERPENE-COUMARIN-ETHERS RE X16872156
`SITOSTEROL RE X19691312
`SODIUM FERULATE PL X11367733
UMBELLIFERONE RE CCO KAP `X19691312
UMBELLIFERONE-ETHERS RE LAF `TEU
`VALERIANIC-ACID RE ADP
VALERIC-ACID EO AYL
VANILLIN 600 `RE AYL CCO HHB `X19691312
Eight-digit numbers preceded by an X are Pub Med serial numbers.
Activities for many of these phytochemicals available on USDA's Phytochemical Database
James A. (Jim) Duke
8210 Murphy Road
Fulton, MD 20759
1. Tucker AO, DeBaggio T. 2000. The Big Book of Herbs. Loveland, CO: Interweave Press; 688 pp.
2. Lee C-L, Chiang L-C, Cheng L-H, et al. Influenza A (H1N1) antiviral and cytotoxic agents from Ferula assa-foetida. J Nat Prod. 2009 Sep;72(9):1568–1572.
3. CNN News. Nov. 18, 2009.
4. Duke JA. 2008. The Green Pharmacy Guide to Healing Foods. Rodale Press. 400 pp. Spanish translation.
5. Mentioned on CNN and NBC news, Nov. 19, 2009.