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From the Townsend Letter
July 2007


Applied Kinesiology: An Effective Complementary Treatment for Children with Down Syndrome
by Scott C. Cuthbert, BA, BCAO, DC

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Page 1, 2, References

1. Duff, K, Williamson, R, Richards. SJ. Expression of genes encoding two chains of collagen type VI molecule during human fetal heart development. Int J Cardiol. 1990; 27:128-129.
2. Goodheart, GJ. Applied Kinesiology Workshop Procedure Manuals. 1964-1999. (Detroit, MI: Privately published).
3. Walther, DS. Applied Kinesiology. Vol. II. Systems DC, Pueblo, CO: Systems DC, 1983.
4. DeJarnette MB. Cranial Technique. Nebraska City, Nebraska: Privately published; 1979, 1978, 1977.
5. Magoun HI. Osteopathy in the Cranial Field, Third Edition. The Journal Printing Company, Kirksville MO: The Journal Printing Company, 1976.
6. Sutherland WG. Teachings in the Science of Osteopathy. Portland, Oregon: Rudra Press, 1990.
7. Upledger JE. Craniosacral Therapy. Seattle, WA: Eastland Press, 1983.
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10. Blum CL, Cuthbert S. Cranial therapeutic care: Is there any evidence? Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 2006;14:10.
11. Christensen MG, Delle Morgan DR. Job analysis of chiropractic: A project report, survey analysis, and summary of the practice of chiropractic within the United States. Greeley, CO: National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, 1993:78.
12. Christensen MG, Delle Morgan DR. Job analysis of chiropractic in Australia and New Zealand: A project report, survey analysis, and summary of the practice of chiropractic within Australia and New Zealand. Greeley, CO: National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, 1994:;92:152.
13. Christensen MG. American Chiropractic Association. Available from: (July 2007: Not a good link)
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15. Thie JF, Thie M. Touch for Health website. (July 2007: Not a good link) See also: A moment of silence for Dr. John Thie. Dynamic Chiropractic. 2005;23(19). Available at: .
16. Cuthbert SC. Applied kinesiology and myofascia. International Journal of Applied Kinesiology and Kinesiologic Medicine. 2002;13:34-39.
17. Goodheart G. Applied kinesiology - The beginning. Digest Of Chiropractic Economics. 1989;31(6):15-23.
18. Gin RH, Green BN. George Goodheart, Jr., D.C., and a history of applied kinesiology. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1997;20(5):331-7.
19. Goodheart GJ. The applied kinesiology technic. Todays Chiro: Jul/Aug 1993; 22(93): 56-58.
20. McCord KM. Applied kinesiology: An historical overview. Dig Chiro Econ. 1991;34:20-27.
21. Haney V. Chronic pediatric migraine-type headaches treated by long-term inderol prior to chiropractic care: A case report. Proceedings of the National Conference on Chiropractic. 1993;132-40.
22. Perle S. Applied kinesiology (AK). Chiropractic Technique. 1995;7(3):103-7.
23. Lebeouf C. Patrick, K. The use of major and minor therapy forms in Australian chiropractic practice. Journal of The Australian Chiropractic Association. 1987;17:109-11.
24. Mcdowall D. A study of the results of applied kinesiology in a group of 123 patients. Journal of The Australian Chiropractic Association. 1983;13(2):26-7.
25. Goodheart G. Applied kinesiology in dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint. Dent Clin North Am. 1983;27(3):613-30.
26. Glassley DP. Applied dental kinesiology: Temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Basal Facts. 1983;5(2):65-6.
27. Walther DS. Uses of applied kinesiology for dentists. Basal Facts. 1985; 7(2): 133-41.
28. Goodheart GJ. Applied kinesiology and dentistry. Basal Facts. 1987; 9(2):69-73.
29. Goodheart G. Posture: 30 years of observation and some logical chiropractic conclusions. Part II. Digest Of Chiropractic Economics. 1987; 30(2):34-41.
30. Goodheart G. Kinesiology and dentistry. Journal of The American Society of Psychosomatic Disease. 1976; 6: 16-18.
31. Eversaul G. Biofeedback and kinesiology. Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Disease. 1976;6:19-23.
32. Tiekert CG. Applied kinesiology: Its use in veterinary diagnosis. Vet Med. 1981;76:1621-3.
33. Froehle R. Ear infection: A retrospective study examining improvement from chiropractic care and analyzing for influencing. Factors J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1996;19(3):169-177.
34. Santoro F, Maiorana C, Geirola R. Neuromuscular relaxation and CCMDP. Rolfing and applied kinesiology. [In Italian] Dent Cadmos. 1989 15;57(17):76-80.
35. Omura Y. New simple early diagnostic methods using Omura's "Bi-Digital O-Ring Dysfunction Localization Method" and acupuncture organ representation points, and their applications to the "drug & food compatibility test" for individual organs and to auricular diagnosis of internal organs – Part I. Acupunct Electrother Res. 1981;6(4):239-54.
36. Meal G. Applied kinesiology: Muscle response in diagnosis, therapy, and preventive medicine. Eur J Chiro. 1986;34(2):107.
37. Ibid.
38. Perot C, Meldener R, Goubel F. Objective measurement of proprioceptive technique consequences on muscular maximal voluntary contraction during manual muscle testing. Agressologie. 1991;32(10 Spec No): pg. 471-4.
39. Leisman G, Shambaugh P, Ferentz AH. Somatosensory evoked potential changes during muscle testing. Int J Neurosci. 1989 Mar;45(1-2): pg. 143-51.
40. Calderon L, Lawson A. Interexaminer reliability of applied kinesiology manual muscle testing. Chiropractic Sports Medicine. 1994 8(4):148-52.
41. Lawson A, Calderon L. Interexaminer agreement for applied kinesiology manual muscle testing. Percept Mot Skills. 1997 84;2: 539-46.
42. Schmitt WH, Yanuck SF. Expanding the neurological examination using functional neurologic assessment: Part II neurologic basis of applied kinesiology. Int J Neurosci. 1999 97;1-2: 77-108.
43. Motyka TM, Yanuck SF. Expanding the neurological examination using functional neurologic assessment part I: Methodological considerations. Int J Neurosci. 1999 97;1-2:61-76.
44. Schmitt, W. Neurophysiological study supports applied kinesiology procedures. Journal Of The American Chiropractic Association. 1995;32(3):47-8.
45. Caruso W, Leisman G. The clinical utility of force/displacement analysis of muscle testing in applied kinesiology. Int J Neurosci. 2001;106(3-4):147-57.
46. Caruso W, Leisman G. A force/displacement analysis of muscle testing. Percept Mot Skills. 2000 Oct;91(2):683-92.
47. Monti D, Sinnott J, Marchese M, Kunkel E, Greeson J. Muscle test comparisons of congruent and incongruent self-referential statements. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1999, 88:1019-1028.
48. Schmitt W, Leisman G. Correlation of applied kinesiology muscle testing findings with serum immunoglobulin levels for food allergies. International Journal of Neuroscience. 1998; 96:237-244.
49. Goodheart G. Failure of the musculo-skeletal system may produce major weight shifts in forward and backward bending. Proc Inter Conf Spinal Manip. May 1990; 399-402.
50. Scopp A. An experimental evaluation of kinesiology in allergy and deficiency disease diagnosis. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry. 1979; 7(2):137-8.
51. Carpenter SA, Hoffmann, J, Mendel R. Evaluation of muscle-organ association, part I and II. J Clin Chiro.1977; II(6):22-33 and III(1):42-60.
52. Cuthbert S. Proposed mechanisms and treatment strategies for motion sickness disorder: A case series. J Chiro Med. Spring 2006;5(1):22-31.
53. Cuthbert S, Blum C. Symptomatic Arnold-Chiari malformation and cranial nerve dysfunction: A case study of applied kinesiology cranial evaluation and treatment. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2005 May;28(4):e1-6.
54. Meldener R. Post-surgical hip dislocation. Int J AK and Kinesio Med. 2005;19:27.
55. Chung AL, Shin EJ, Yoo IJ, Kim KS. Reliability of the kinesiologic occlusal position. Int J AK and Kinesio Med. 2005;20:6-10.
56. Caso ML. Evaluation of Chapman's neurolymphatic reflexes via applied kinesiology: A case report of low back pain and congenital intestinal abnormality. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2004 Jan;27(1):66.
57. Cuthbert S. Applied kinesiology and down syndrome: A study of 15 cases. Int J AK and Kinesio Med. 2003;16.
58. Maykel W. Pediatric case history: Cost-effective treatment of block naso-lacrimal canal utilizing applied kinesiology tenets. Int J AK and Kinesio Med. 2003;16:34.
59. Weiss G. A 39-year-old female cyclist suffering from total exhaustion caused by over-training and false nutrition. Int J AK and Kinesio Med. 2003;15:39.
60. Sprieser PT. Episodic paroxysmal vertigo. Int J AK and Kinesio Med. 2002;14:35.
61. Leaf D. Severe equilibrium problems non-responsive to pharmacological care treated with chiropractic and applied kinesiology: A case history. Int J AK and Kinesio Med. 2002;13:27.
62. Gregory WM, Mills SP, Hamed HH, Fentiman IS. Applied kinesiology for treatment of women with mastalgia. Breast. 2001 Feb;10(1):15-9.
63. Cuthbert S. An applied kinesiology evaluation of facial neuralgia: A case history of Bell's Palsy. Int J AK and Kinesio Med. 2001;10:42-45.
64. Calhoon J. Applied Kinesiology management of multiple sclerosis: A case history. Int J AK and Kinesio Med. 2001;12:28-29.
65. Mathews MO, Thomas E, Court L. Applied kinesiology helping children with learning disabilities. Int J AK and Kinesio Med. 1999;4.
66. Klinkoski B, Leboeuf C. A review of the research papers published by the international College of Applied Kinesiology from 1981 to 1987. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1990 13;4:190-4.
67. Williams L, Rosen MS. The research status of applied kinesiology, part 2: An annotated bibliography of applied kinesiology research. Dig Chiro Econ. 1995;37:6:40-4.
68. Rosen MS. Research status of applied kinesiology, part 1. Dig Chiro Econ. 1994;37(2):17-23.
69. The websites of the ICAK-International and ICAK-USA offer the "Applied Kinesiology Research and Literature Compendium," where a collection of research papers on the fundamental tenets and practices of chiropractic AK and MMT can be reviewed. International College of Applied Kinesiology Online. Available at: 2007: Not a good link. Try
70. Sacro Occipital Technique Organization Online. Available at:
71. Cuthbert SC, Goodheart GJ Jr. On the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing: a literature review, Chiropr Osteopat. 2007 Mar 6;15(1):4.

* Images reproduced from David S. Walther's, Applied Kinesiology, Volume II: Head, Neck, and Jaw Pain and Dysfunction – The Stomatognathic System: Systems DC, Pueblo, CO 81004, with permission.

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