Page 1, 2, 3
1. Myasoedova E, Crowson CS, Kremers HM, Therneau TM, Gabriel SE. Is the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis rising?: results from Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1955-2007. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Jun;62(6):1576–1582.
2. Chakravarty EF, Bush TM, Manzi S, Clarke AE, Ward MM. Prevalence of adult systemic lupus erythematosus in California and Pennsylvania in 2000: estimates obtained using hospitalization data. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Jun;56(6):2092–2094.
3. Uramoto KM, Michet CJ Jr, Thumboo J, Sunku J, O'Fallon WM, Gabriel SE. Trends in the incidence and mortality of systemic lupus erythematosus, 1950–1992. Arthritis Rheum. 1999;42(1):46–50.
4. Wailoo A, Hernández Alava M, Scott IC, Ibrahim F, Scott DL. Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies using combination disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids in early rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Oct;53(10):1773–1777.
5. Yee CS, Su L2, Toescu V, Hickman R, Situnayake D, Bowman S, Farewell V, Gordon C. Birmingham SLE cohort: outcomes of a large inception cohort followed for up to 21 years. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Oct 15.
6. Masi AT, Rehman AA, Cutolo M, Aldag JC. Do women with premenopausal-onset rheumatoid arthritis have relative insufficiency or imbalance of adrenocortical steroids? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014 May;1317:7–16.
7. Masi AT1, Elmore KB, Rehman AA, Chatterton RT, Goertzen NJ, Aldag JC. lower serum androstenedione levels in pre-rheumatoid arthritis versus normal control women: correlations with lower serum cortisol levels. Autoimmune Dis. 2013; 2013:593493
8. Imrich R, Vlcek M, Aldag JC, et al. An endocrinologist's view on relative adrenocortical insufficiency in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Apr;1193:134–138.
9. Imrich R, Vlcek M, Kerlik J, et al. Determinants of adrenal androgen hypofunction in premenopausal females with rheumatoid arthritis. Physiol Res. 2014;63(3):321–329.
10. Cutolo M. Estrogen metabolites: increasing evidence for their role in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2004 Mar;31(3):419–421.
11. Cutolo M, Capellino S, Sulli A, et al. Estrogens and autoimmune diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1089:538–547.
12. Cutolo M, Sulli A, Straub RH. Estrogen metabolism and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2012 May;11(6–7):A460–A464.
13. Petri M, Thompson E, Abusuwwa R, Huang J, Garrett E. BALES: the Baltimore lupus environmental study. Arthritis Rheum. 2001; 44:S331
14. Chighizola C, Meroni PL. The role of environmental estrogens and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2012 May;11(6–7):A493–A501.
15. Somers EC, Richardson BC. Environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and the risk of lupus. Lupus. 2014 May;23(6):568–576.
16. Case AM, Reid RL. Effects of the menstrual cycle on medical disorders. Arch Intern Med. 1998 Jul 13;158(13):1405–12.
17. Hughes GC. Progesterone and autoimmune disease. Autoimmun Rev. 2012 May;11(6–7):A502–A514.
18. Tang C, Li Y, Lin X, et al. Prolactin increases tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in peripheral CD14 monocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Cell Immunol. 2014 Jul;290(1):164–168
19. Shelly S, Boaz M, Orbach H. Prolactin and autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2012 May;11(6–7):A465–A470.
20. Barbosa Vde S, Rêgo J, Antônio da Silva N. Possible role of adipokines in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Rev Bras Reumatol. 2012 Mar–Apr;52(2):278–287.
21. Chung CP, Long AG, Solus JF, et al. Adipocytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship to inflammation, insulin resistance and coronary atherosclerosis. Lupus. 2009 Aug;18(9):799–806.
22. Meyer M, Sellam J, Fellahi S, et al. Serum level of adiponectin is a surrogate independent biomarker of radiographic disease progression in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the ESPOIR cohort. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15(6):R210.
23. Harding G, Mak YT, Evans B, Cheung J, MacDonald D, Hampson G. The effects of dexamethasone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cytokines and receptor expression in a human osteoblastic cell line: potential steroid-sparing role for DHEA. Cytokine. 2006 Oct;36(1–2):57–68.
24. Chang DM, Chu SJ, Chen HC, Kuo SY, Lai JH. Dehydroepiandrosterone suppresses interleukin 10 synthesis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Dec;63(12):1623–1626.
25. Robinzon B, Cutolo M. Should dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy be provided with glucocorticoids? Rheumatology (Oxford). 1999 Jun;38(6):488–495.
26. Papierska L, Rabijewski M, Kasperlik-Załuska A, Zgliczyenski W.
27. Effect of DHEA supplementation on serum IGF-1, osteocalcin, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal, glucocorticoid-treated women. Adv Med Sci. 2012 Jun 1;57(1):51–57.
28. Pereira RM, Freire de Carvalho J. Glucocorticoid-induced myopathy. Joint Bone Spine. 2011 Jan;78(1):41–44.
29. Petri MA, Lahita RG, Van Vollenhoven RF, et al. Effects of prasterone on corticosteroid requirements of women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Jul;46(7):1820–1829.
30. Zhao J, Dasmahapatra AK, Khan SI, Khan IA. Anti-aromatase activity of the constituents from damiana (Turnera diffusa). J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Dec 8;120(3):387–393.
31. Lee TK, Kim DI, Han JY, Kim CH Inhibitory effects of Scutellaria barbata D. Don. and Euonymus alatus Sieb. on aromatase activity of human leiomyomal cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2004 Aug;26(3):315–327.
32. Subbaramaiah K, Sue E, Bhardwaj P, Du B, Hudis CA, Giri D, Kopelovich L, Zhou XK, Dannenberg AJ. Dietary polyphenols suppress elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in the mammary gland of obese mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Sep;6(9):886–897.
33. Shufelt C, Merz CN, Yang Y, et al. Red versus white wine as a nutritional aromatase inhibitor in premenopausal women: a pilot study. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2012 Mar;21(3):281–284.
34. Korkmaz A, Sanchez-Barcelo EJ, Tan DX, Reiter RJ. Role of melatonin in the epigenetic regulation of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009 May;115(1):13–27.
35. Oates L, Cohen M, Braun L, Schembri A, Taskova R. Reduction in urinary organophosphate pesticide metabolites in adults after a week-long organic diet. Environ Res. 2014 Jul;132:105–111.
36. Rajoria S, Suriano R, Parmar PS, et al. 3,3'-diindolylmethane modulates estrogen metabolism in patients with thyroid proliferative disease: a pilot study. Thyroid. 2011 Mar;21(3):299–304
37. Vivar OI, Saunier EF, Leitman DC, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF. Selective activation of estrogen receptor-beta target genes by 3,3'-diindolylmethane. Endocrinology. 2010 Apr;151(4):1662–1667.
38. Sepkovic DW, Stein J, Carlisle AD, Ksieski HB, Auborn K, Bradlow HL. Diindolylmethane inhibits cervical dysplasia, alters estrogen metabolism, and enhances immune response in the K14-HPV16 transgenic mouse model. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Nov;18(11):2957–2964.
39. Mulvey L, Chandrasekaran A, Liu K, Lombardi S, Wang XP, Auborn KJ, Goodwin L. Interplay of genes regulated by estrogen and diindolylmethane in breast cancer cell lines. Mol Med. 2007 Jan–Feb;13(1–2):69–78.
40. Moon YJ, Wang X, Morris ME. Dietary flavonoids: effects on xenobiotic and carcinogen metabolism. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006 Mar;20(2):187–210.
41. Van Die MD, Burger HG, Teede HJ, Bone KM. Vitex agnus-castus extracts for female reproductive disorders: a systematic review of clinical trials. Planta Med. 2013;79:562–575.
42. Ye Q, Zhang QY, Zheng CJ, Wang Y, Qin LP. Casticin, a flavonoid isolated from Vitex rotundifolia, inhibits prolactin release in vivo and in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:1564–1568.
43. Jongkees BJ, Hommel B, Colzato LS. People are different: tyrosine's modulating effect on cognitive control in healthy humans may depend on individual differences related to dopamine function. Front Psychol. 2014 Oct 6;5:1101.
44. Luthra PM, Singh S. Identification and optimization of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in Mucuna pruriens DC. var. utilis. Planta. 2010 May;231(6):1361–1369
45. Rana DG, Galani VJ. Dopamine mediated antidepressant effect of Mucuna pruriens seeds in various experimental models of depression. Ayu. 2014 Jan;35(1):90–97.
46. Scotece M, Conde J, Gómez R, López V, et al. Beyond fat mass: exploring the role of adipokines in rheumatic diseases. Sci World J. 2011;11:1932–1947.
47. Spiegel K, Leproult R, L'hermite-Balériaux M, Copinschi G, Penev PD, Van Cauter E. Leptin levels are dependent on sleep duration: relationships with sympathovagal balance, carbohydrate regulation, cortisol, and thyrotropin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;89(11):5762–5771.
48. Weigle DS, Breen PA, Matthys CC, et al. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1):41–48.
49. Longo VD, Mattson MP. Fasting: molecular mechanisms and clinical applications. Cell Metab. 2014 Feb 4;19(2):181–192.
50. Beavers KM, Ambrosius WT, Nicklas BJ, Rejeski WJ. Independent and combined effects of physical activity and weight loss on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight and obese older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Jul;61(7):1089–1094.
Alena Guggenheim attended Reed College in Portland, Oregon, and graduated with a BA in biology in 2001. In 2007 she graduated from the National College of Natural Medicine with a doctorate in naturopathic medicine. In 2009 she completed a residency through National College of Natural Medicine and the Center For Natural Medicine mentored by Dr. Martin Milner that focused on cardiopulmonary medicine. During her education, she participated in research regarding immune modulation with herbs and personality implications on health. In 2011, she began teaching in the Master of Science in Integrative Medicine Research (MSiMR) and Doctorate of Naturopathic Medicine programs at NCNM. She teaches clinical physical diagnosis, rheumatology, microbiology, and an integrative modalities course. She also mentors students completing the MSiMR program. Her research focuses on immune modulation by mushrooms.
Dr. Guggenheim maintains a private practice at the Center for Natural Medicine in Portland, the first naturopathic clinic in the country to be a certified Patient Centered Primary Care Home. She provides holistic primary care with a focus on rheumatological diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.