Townsend Letter Alternative Medicine Magazine



  FREE e-Edition


 EDTA Chelation Therapy


 E-mail List

From the Townsend Letter
May 2013

Integrative Management of Atrial Fibrillation and Natural Blood Thinning
by Jeremy Mikolai, ND
Search this site

Page 1, 2, References

1.   Ganz L. Control of ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation: Pharmacologic therapy. In:  Basow DS, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA; 2013.
2.   Wang TJ, Larson MG, Levy D, et al. Temporal relations of atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure and their joint influence on mortality: the Framingham Heart Study.
Circulation. 2003;107:2920.
3.   Phang R, Olshansky B. Management of new onset atrial fibrillation. In: Basow DS, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA; 2013.
4.   Go AS, Hylek EM, Phillips KA, et al. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study.
JAMA 2. 2001; ;285:2370.
5.   Wann LS, Curtis AB, January CT, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (Updating the 2006 Guideline): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2. 2011; ;57:223.
6.   European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), European Cardiac Arrhythmia Society (ECAS), American College of Cardiology (ACC), et al. HRS/EHRA/ECAS expert Consensus Statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: recommendations for personnel, policy, procedures and follow-up. A report of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) Task Force on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation.
Heart Rhythm 2. 2007; ;4:816.
7.   Danias PG, Caulfield TA, Weigner MJ, et al. Likelihood of spontaneous conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998; ;31:588.
8.   Hart RG, Pearce LA, Rothbart RM, et al. Stroke with intermittent atrial fibrillation: incidence and predictors during aspirin therapy. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000; 35:183.
9.   Glotzer TV, Daoud EG, Wyse DG, et al. The relationship between daily atrial tachyarrhythmia burden from implantable device diagnostics and stroke risk: the TRENDS study.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2009; 2:474.
10.   Knight B. Cardioversion for specific arrhythmias. In: Basow DS, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA; 2013.
11.   DeSilva RA, Graboys TB, Podrid PJ, Lown B. Cardioversion and defibrillation.
Am Heart J. 1980;100:881.
12.   Lown B. Electrical reversion of cardiac arrhythmias.
Br Heart J 1. 1967; ;29:469.
13.   Gurevitz OT, Ammash NM, Malouf JF, et al. Comparative efficacy of monophasic and biphasic waveforms for transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter.
Am Heart J 2. 2005; 149:316.
14.   Page RL, Kerber RE, Russell JK, et al. Biphasic versus monophasic shock waveform for conversion of atrial fibrillation: the results of an international randomized, double-blind multicenter trial.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2. 2002; 39:1956.
15.   Ho KM, Sheridan DJ, Paterson T. Use of intravenous magnesium to treat acute onset atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis.
Heart. 2007 Nov;93(11):1433–1440.
16.   Chu K, Evans R, Emerson G, Greenslade J, Brown A. Magnesium sulfate versus placebo for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a randomized clinical trial.
Acad Emerg Med. 2009 Apr;16(4):295–300.
17.   Davey MJ, Teubner D. A randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate, in addition to usual care, for rate control in atrial fibrillation.
Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Apr;45(4):347–353.
18.   Ceremuzynski L, Gebalska J, Wolk R, Makowska E. Hypomagnesemia in heart failure with ventricular arrhythmias. Beneficial effects of magnesium supplementation.
J Intern Med 2. 2000;247:78-86.
19.   Jellin JM, ed. Magnesium [Web page]. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Updated 2012; accessed 2013 Feb 13. Available at:
20.   Chest, Palpitation, irregular. In: Schroyens F, ed.
Synthesis: Repertorium Homeopathicum Syntheticum. 9.1 ed. London: Homeopathic Book Publishers; 2004:1324.
21.   Armaganijan L, Patel D, Lopes RD, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux and atrial fibrillation: is there any correlation?
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2012;10(3):317–322.
22.   Fang MC, Go AS, Chang Y, et al. Comparison of risk stratification schemes to predict thromboembolism in people with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.
J Am Coll Cardiol 2. 2008; 51:810.
23.   Camm AJ, Kirchhof P, Lip GY, et al. Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: The Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Eur Heart J. 2010;31:2369.
24.   Gage BF, Waterman AD, Shannon W, et al. Validation of clinical classification schemes for predicting stroke: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation.
JAMA. 2001;285:2864.
25.   Lip GY, Nieuwlaat R, Pisters R, et al. Refining clinical risk stratification for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation using a novel risk factor-based approach: the euro heart survey on atrial fibrillation.
Chest. 2010;137:263.
26.   Lip GY. Implications of the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED Scores for thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation.
Am J Med. 2011;124:111.
27.   Schwartz L, Brister SJ, Bourassa MG, Peniston C, Buchanan MR. Interobserver Reproducibility and Biological Variability of the Surgicutt II Bleeding Time.
J Thromb Thrombolysis. 1998 Sep;6(2):155–158.
28.   Srámek R, Srámek A, Koster T, Briët E, Rosendaal FR. A randomized and blinded comparison of three bleeding time techniques: the Ivy method, and the Simplate II method in two directions.
Thromb Haemost. 1992 May 4;67(5):514–518.
29.   Del Vecchio A. Use of the bleeding time in the neonatal intensive care unit.
Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2002;91(438):82–86.
30.   Rodgers RP, Levin J. A critical reappraisal of the bleeding time.
Semin Thromb Hemost. 1990 Jan;16(1):1–20
31.   Buchanan GR, Holtkamp CA. A comparative study of variables affecting the bleeding time using two disposable devices.
Am J Clin Pathol. 1989 Jan;91(1):45–51.
32.   Maleki A, Roohafza H, Rashidi N, et al. Determination of normal range of bleeding time in rural and urban residents of Borujerd, Iran: A pilot study.
ARYA Atheroscler. 2012 Fall;8(3):136–142.
33.   Small DS, Wrishko RE, Ernest CS, et al. Effect of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel during multiple dosing: an open-label, single-sequence, clinical trial.
Drugs Aging. 2009;26(9):781–790.
34.   Nekludov M, Bellander BM, Blombäck M, Wallen HN. Platelet dysfunction in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
J Neurotrauma. 2007 Nov;24(11):1699–1706.
35.   Gargouri J, Mnif H, Sellami S, Rekik H. Exploring the effect of aspirin on primary hemostasis through bleeding time. Study of 16 volunteers. [Article in French.]
Tunis Med. 2004 Feb;82(2):219–222.
36.   Covington MB. Omega-3 fatty acids.
Am Fam Physician. 2004. 1;70(1):133–140.
37.   Agren JJ, Vaisanen S, Hanninen O, et al. Hemostatic factors and platelet aggregation after a fish-enriched diet or fish oil or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997;57:419–421.
38.   Cobiac L, Clifton PM, Abbey M, et al. Lipid, lipoprotein, and hemostatic effects of fish vs fish-oil n-3 fatty acids in mildly hyperlipidemic males.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1210–1216.
39.   Robinson JG, Stone NJ. Antiatherosclerotic and antithrombotic effects of omega-3 fatty acids.
Am J Cardiol. 2006;98 [suppl]:39i–49i.
40.   Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Grobbee DE, Donders AR, Kok FJ. Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials.
J Hypertens. 2002;20:1493–1499.
41.   Balk E, Chung M, Lichtenstein A, et al., for the Tufts-New England Medical Center Evidence-Based Practice Center, Boston, MA.
Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Intermediate Markers of Cardiovascular Disease: Summary. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 93. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; March 2004. AHRQ Publication No. 04-E010-2.
42.   Lovegrove JA, Lovegrove SS, Lesauvage SV, et al. Moderate fish-oil supplementation reverses low-platelet, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and reduces plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in British Indo-Asians.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:974 –982.
43.   Buckley R, Shewring B, Turner R, Yaqoob P, Minihane A. Circulating triacylglycerol and apoE levels in response to EPA and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in adult human subjects.
Br J Nutr. 2004;92:477–483.
44.   Dyerberg J, Eskesen D, Andersen P, et al. Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males: an 8 weeks dietary intervention study.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58:1062–1070.
45.   Svensson M, Christensen J, Solling J, Schmidt E. The effect of n-3 fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and blood pressure in patients with CRF.
Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;44:77– 83.
46.   Lindman A, Pedersen J, Hjerkinn E, et al. The effects of long-term diet and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on coagulation factor VII and serum phospholipids with special emphasis on the R353Q polymorphism of the FVII gene.
Thromb Haemost. 2004;91:1097–1104.
47.   Tholstrup T, Hellgren LI, Petersen M, et al. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men.
J Nutr. 2004;134:1051–1057.
48.   Theobald HE, Chowienczyk PJ, Whittall R, Humphries SE, Sanders TA. LDL cholesterol-raising effect of low-dose docosahexaenoic acid in middle-aged men and women.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:558–563.
49.   Calabresi L, Villa B, Canavesi M, Sirtori C, James R, Bernini F, Franceschini G. An omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate increases plasma high-density lipoprotein 2 cholesterol and paraoxonase levels in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia.
Metabolism. 2004;53:153–158.
50.   Kumar S, Sutherland F, Rosso R, et al. Effects of chronic omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on human atrial electrophysiology.
Heart Rhythm. 2011;8:562–568.
51.   Kumar S, Sutherland F, Teh AW, et al. Effects of chronic omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on human pulmonary vein and left atrial electrophysiology in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
Am J Cardiol. 2011;108:531–535.
52.   Macchia A, Grancelli H, Varini S, et al.; GESICA Investigators. Omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention of recurrent symptomatic atrial fibrillation: results of the FORWARD (Randomized Trial to Assess Efficacy of PUFA for the Maintenance of Sinus Rhythm in Persistent Atrial Fibrillation) trial.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jan 29;61(4):463–468.
53.   Rix TA, Christensen JH, Schmidt EB. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiac arrhythmias.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013 Mar;16(2):168–173.
54.   Tomita T, Hata T, Takeuchi T, et al. High concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with the development of atrial fibrillation in the Japanese population.
Heart Vessels. Epub 2012 Jun 14.
55.   Guerra F, Shkoza M, Scappini L, Roberti L, Capuci A. Omega-3 PUFAs and atrial fibrillation: have we made up our mind yet?
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2013;18(1):12–20.
56.   Pais E, Alexy T, Holsworth RE, Meiselman HJ. Effects of nattokinase, a pro-fibrinolytic enzyme, on red blood cell aggregation and whole blood viscosity.
Clin Hemorheol Microcircul. 2006;139–142.
57.   Tai MW, Sweet BV. Nattokinase for prevention of thrombosis.
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006 Jun 15;63(12):1121–1123.
58.   Hsia CH, Shen MC, Lin JS, et al. Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects.
Nutr Res. 2009 Mar;29(3):190–196. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2009.01.009.
59.   Yatagai C, Maruyama M, Kawahara T, Sumi H. Nattokinase-promoted tissue plasminogen activator release from human cells.
Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2008;36(5):227–232.
60.   Kim JY, Gum SN, Paik JK, et al. Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.
Hypertens Res. 2008 Aug;31(8):1583–1588.
61.   Polagruto JA, Gross HB, Kamangar F, et al.Platelet reactivity in male smokers following the acute consumption of a flavanol-rich grapeseed extract.
J Med Food. 2007 Dec;10(4):725–730.
62.   Shenoy SF, Keen CL, Kalgaonkar S, Polagruto JA. Effects of grape seed extract consumption on platelet function in postmenopausal women.
Thromb Res. 2007;121(3):431–432.
63.   Weseler AR, Ruijters EJB, Drittij-Reijnders MJ, et al. Plieotropic benefit of monomeric and oligomeric flavanols on vascular health – a randomized controlled clinical pilot study.
PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12): e28460.
64.   Bijak M, Saluk J, Ponczek MB, Nowak P. Antithrombin effect of polyphenol-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.
Phytother Res. 2013;27: 71–76.
65.   Olas B, Wachowicz B, Tomczak A, Erler J, Stochmal A, Olesek W. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of yucca schidigera in vitro.
Platelets. 2008;19(1):70–77.
66.   Vitseva O, Varghese S, Chakrabarti S, Folts JD, Freedman JE. Grape seed and skin extracts inhibit platelet function and release of reactive oxygen intermediates.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2005;46: 444–451.
67.   Zhang Y, Shi H, Wang W, Ke Z, Xu P, Zhong Z, Li X, Wang S. Antithrombotic effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis.
J Vasc Surg. 2011 Mar;53(3):743–53.
68.   Olas B, Wachowicz B, Stochmal A, Oleszek W.The polyphenol-rich extract from grape seeds inhibits platelet signaling pathways triggered by both proteolytic and non-proteolytic agonists.
Platelets. 2012;23(4):282–289.
69.   Feringa HH, Laskey DA, Dickson JE, Coleman CI. The effect of grape seed extract on cardiovascular risk markers: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Aug;111(8):1173–1181.

Page 1, 2, References

Consult your doctor before using any of the treatments found within this site.

Subscriptions are available for Townsend Letter, the Examiner of Alternative Medicine magazine, which is published 10 times each year. Search our pre-2001 archives for further information. Older issues of the printed magazine are also indexed for your convenience. 1983-2001 indices ; recent indices

Once you find the magazines you'd like to order, please use our convenient form, e-mail, or call 360.385.6021 (PST).


Fax: 360.385.0699

Who are we? | New articles | Featured topics | e-Edition |
Tables of contents
| Subscriptions | Contact us | Links | Classifieds | Advertise |
Alternative Medicine Conference Calendar | Search site | Archives |
EDTA Chelation Therapy | Home

© 1983-2013 Townsend Letter
All rights reserved.
Website by Sandy Hershelman Designs