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From the Townsend Letter
May 2015

Placental Fluorosis: Fluoride and Preeclampsia
by John D. MacArthur
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1.      Jido TA, Yakasai IA. Preeclampsia: a review of the evidence. Ann Afr Med. 2013 Apr–Jun;12(2):75–85.
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35.    Burton GJ, Yung HW, Cindrova-Davies T, Charnock-Jones DS. Placental endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of unexplained intrauterine growth restriction and early onset preeclampsia. Placenta. 2009 Mar;30 Suppl A:S43–S48.
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37.    Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Korkmaz A, Rosales-Corral SA. Melatonin and stable circadian rhythms optimize maternal, placental and fetal physiology. Hum Reprod Update. 2014 Mar–Apr;20(2):293–307.
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42.    Inkielewicz-Stepniak I, Knap N. Effect of exposure to fluoride and acetaminophen on oxidative/nitrosative status of liver and kidney in male and female rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2012;64(4):902–911.
43.    Li M, Schwerbrock NM, Lenhart PM, et al. Fetal-derived adrenomedullin mediates the innate immune milieu of the placenta. J Clin Invest. 2013 Jun;123(6):2408–2420. See also: Baby knows best: fetuses emit hormone crucial to preventing preeclampsia [online press release]. University of North Carolina Health Care. May 1, 2013.
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46.    Chlubek D, Mokrzyński S, Machoy Z, Olszewska M. Fluorides in the body of the mother and in the fetus. III. Fluorides in amniotic fluid. Ginekol Pol. 1995 Nov;66(11):614–617.
47.    Shi J, Dai G, Zhang Z. Relationship between bone fluoride content, pathological change in bone of aborted fetuses and maternal fluoride level. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1995 Mar;29(2):103–105.
48.   Staff AC, Braekke K, Johnsen GM, Karumanchi SA, Harsem NK. Circulating concentrations of soluble endoglin (CD105) in fetal and maternal serum and in amniotic fluid in preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Aug;197(2):176.e1-6.
49.    Tskitishvili E, Sharentuya N, Temma-Asano K, et al. Oxidative stress-induced S100B protein from placenta and amnion affects soluble endoglin release from endothelial cells. Mol Hum Reprod. 2010;16(3):188–199.
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57.    MacArthur JD. Fluoride and preterm birth. Townsend Lett. 2013;364:84–94. Available at BirthMacArthurNov2013.pdf [updated and expanded]. Accessed March 1, 2015.
58.    Peraçoli JC, Bannwart-Castro CF, Romao M, et al. High levels of heat shock protein 70 are associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and may differentiate early – from late-onset preeclampsia. J Reprod Immunol. 2013 Dec;100(2):129–134.
59.    Xiong X, Liu J, He W, et al. Dose-effect relationship between drinking water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in children. Environ Res. 2007 Jan;103(1):112–116.
60.    Diouf M, Cisse D, Lo CM, Ly M, Faye D, Ndiaye O. Pregnant women living in areas of endemic fluorosis in Senegal and low birthweight newborns: case-control study. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2012 Apr;60(2):103–108. Full study (translation) available at Accessed March 1, 2015.
61.    Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER). Critical review of any new evidence on the hazard profile, health effects, and human exposure to fluoride and the fluoridating agents of drinking water [online document]. European Commission. May 16, 2011. Accessed March 1, 2015.
62.    British Fluoridation Society. Dental fluorosis [online presentation]. March 2012. Available at Accessed March 1, 2015.
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64.    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Reference statistics on water fluoridation status [Web page]. 2013. Accessed March 1, 2015.
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71.    Singh N, Verma KG, Verma P, Sidhu GK, Sachdeva S. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone and TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas. Springerplus. 2014;3:7.
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73.    Food and Drug Administration. Summary of proposed rule on pregnancy and lactation labeling. Federal Register. 2008 May29;73(104):30834. Available at: Accessed March 1, 2015.
74.    Food and Drug Administration. health claim notification for fluoridated water and reduced risk of dental caries [Web page]. 2006. Available at: Accessed March 1, 2015.
75.    Hileman B. Fluoridation of water: questions about health risks and benefits remain after more than 40 years. Chem Eng News. August 1, 1988. Available at Accessed March 1, 2015.
76.    Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 1997:304. Available at Accessed March 1, 2015.

John D. MacArthur's previous contributions to the Townsend Letter include three reports in October and November 2013: "Too Much Copper, Too Little Zinc, and Cognitive Deterioration in Alzheimer's Disease" (with George J. Brewer, MD), "Fluoride and Preterm Birth," and "Overdosed: Fluoride, Copper, and Alzheimer's Disease."

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